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Solar Manufacturing R&D



"Enhanced moisture stability of MAPbI3 perovskite solar cells through Barium doping" 

Bahadur, J., A. H. Ghahremani, S. Gupta, T. Druffel, M. K. Sunkara and K. Pal

Solar Energy 190: 396-404. DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2019.08.033


"A study on the material characteristics of low temperature cured SnO2 films for perovskite solar cells under high humidity" 

Bahadur, J., A. H. Ghahremani, B. Martin, S. Pishgar, T. Druffel, M. K. Sunkara and K. Pal

Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 30(20): 18452-18461. DOI: 10.1007/s10854-019-02199-8


“Solution processed Mo doped SnO2 as an effective ETL in the fabrication of low temperature planer perovskite solar cell under ambient conditions” 

Bahadur, J., A. H. Ghahremani, B. Martin, T. Druffel, M. K. Sunkara, and K.  Pal

Organic Electronics 67: 159-167. doi:10.1016/j.orgel.2019.01.027


“Rapid processing of perovskite solar cells through pulsed photonic annealing: a review” 

Ghahremani, A. H., B. Martin, K. Ankireddy, and T. Druffel

Journal of Coatings Technology and Research, 16(6): 1637-1642. doi:10.1007/s11998-019-00217-2


"Intense pulsed light, a promising technique to develop molybdenum sulfide catalysts for hydrogen evolution" 

Gupta, A., K. Ankireddy, B. Kumar, A. Alruqi, J. Jasinski, G. Gupta and T. Druffel

Nanotechnology 30(17): 175401. DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aaffac


"Rapid and Economic Synthesis of a Li7PS6 Solid Electrolyte from a Liquid Approach" 

Ziolkowska, D. A., W. Arnold, T. Druffel, M. Sunkara and H. Wang

ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 11(6): 6015-6021. DOI: 10.1021/acsami.8b19181

“High Temperature Stability of Transparent Silica Aerogels for Solar Thermal Applications”

E. Strobach, B. Bhatia, S. Yang, L. Zhao, and E.N. Wang 

APL Materials 7, 081104, 2019


"Rapid thermal annealing of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films by intense pulsed light with aid of diiodomethane additive" 

Ankireddy, K., A. H. Ghahremani, B. Martin, G. Gupta and T. Druffel

Journal of Materials Chemistry A 6(20): 9378-9383. DOI: 10.1039/c8ta01237g

"Intense pulsed light processing for photovoltaic manufacturing"

Druffel, T., R. Dharmadasa, B. W. Lavery and K. Ankireddy

Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 174: 359-369. DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2017.09.010



"Seed mediated copper nanoparticle synthesis for fabricating oxidation-free interdigitated electrodes using intense pulse light sintering for flexible printed chemical sensors"

Ankireddy, K., T. Druffel, S. Vunnam, G. Filipič, R. Dharmadasa and D. Amos

Journal of Materials Chemistry C


"Atmospheric Processing of Perovskite Solar Cells using Intense Pulsed Light"

Ankireddy, K., B. W. Lavery and T. Druffel

Journal of Electronic Materials


"Electroplating of CdTe thin films from cadmium sulphate precursor and comparison of layers grown by 3-electrode and 2-electrode systems"

I. Dharmadasa, M.L. Madugu, O.I. Olusola, O.K. Echendu, F. Fauzi, D. Diso, A. Weeradinghe, R. Dharmadasa, B. Lavery, J.B. Jasinski, T.A. Krentsel, G. Sumanasekera



"Effect of Precursor Solution Aging on the Crystallinity and Photovoltaic Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells"

H. Tsai, W. Y. Nie, Y. H. Lin, J. C. Blancon, S. Tretiak, J. Even, G. Gupta, P. M. Ajayan and A. D. Mohite

Advanced Energy Materials


“Ultrafast Exciton Dynamics in Shape-Controlled Methylammonium Lead Bromide Perovskite Nanostructures: Effect of Quantum Confinement on Charge Carrier Recombination”

H. Telfah, A. Jamhawi, M. B. Teunis, R. Sardar, and J. Liu

J. Phys. Chem. C 121, 28556–28565



"Stable and durable CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells at ambient conditions"

Rajamanickam, N., Kumari, S., Vendra, V.K., Lavery, B., Spurgeon, J., Druffel, T., and Sunkara, M.* 

Nanotechnology, 2016, 27, 235404


"Intense Pulsed Light Sintering of CH3NH3PbI3 Solar Cells"

Lavery, B., Kumari, S., Konermann, H., Draper, G., Spurgeon, J., and Druffel, T.* 

ACS Appl. Mater. Inter., 2016, 13, 8419-8426



"Ultrafast charge carrier relaxation and charge transfer processes in CdS/CdTe thin films"

Pandit, B., R. Dharmadasa, I. M. Dharmadasa, T. Druffel and J. Liu

Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 17(26): 16760-16766. DOI: 10.1039/c5cp01652e


"High rate and durable, binder free anode based on silicon loaded MoO3 nanoplatelets"

Martinez-Garcia, A., A. K. Thapa, R. Dharmadasa, T. Q. Nguyen, J. Jasinski, T. L. Druffel and M. K. Sunkara

Sci Rep 5: 10530. DOI: 10.1038/srep10530


"Toward high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells with a photoanode fabricated via a simple water-based formulation"

Lupitskyy, R., V. K. Vendra, J. Jasinski, D. A. Amos, M. K. Sunkara and T. Druffel

Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 23(7): 883-891. DOI: 10.1002/pip.2502


"Solution phase synthesis and intense pulsed light sintering and reduction of a copper oxide ink with an encapsulating nickel oxide barrier"

Jha, M., R. Dharmadasa, G. L. Draper, A. Sherehiy, G. Sumanasekera, D. Amos and T. Druffel

Nanotechnology 26(17): 175601. DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/26/17/175601


"Fabrication of Elemental Copper by Intense Pulsed Light Processing of a Copper Nitrate Hydroxide Ink"

Draper, G. L., R. Dharmadasa, M. E. Staats, B. W. Lavery and T. Druffel

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7(30): 16478-16485. DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b03854


"Processing of CdTe thin films by intense pulsed light in the presence of CdCl2"

Dharmadasa, R., B. W. Lavery, I. M. Dharmadasa and T. Druffel

Journal of Coatings Technology and Research 12(5): 835-842. DOI: 10.1007/s11998-015-9688-x


"Effects of CdCl2 treatment on deep levels in CdTe and their implications on thin film solar cells: a comprehensive photoluminescence study"

Dharmadasa, I. M., O. K. Echendu, F. Fauzi, N. A. Abdul-Manaf, H. I. Salim, T. Druffel, R. Dharmadasa and B. Lavery

Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics. DOI: 10.1007/s10854-015-3090-4



"Nanowire architectures for iodide free dye-sensitized solar cells"

Vendra, V. K., T. Q. Nguyen, T. Druffel, J. B. Jasinski, D. A. Amos and M. K. Sunkara

Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2(10): 3543. DOI: 10.1039/c3ta13997b


"Intense pulsed light treatment of cadmium telluride nanoparticle-based thin films"

Dharmadasa, R., B. Lavery, I. M. Dharmadasa and T. Druffel

ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 6(7): 5034-5040. DOI: 10.1021/am500124t


"Intense Pulsed Light Sintering of Electrodeposited CdS Thin Films"

Dharmadasa, R., I. M. Dharmadasa and T. Druffel

Advanced Engineering Materials 16(11): 1351-1361. DOI: 10.1002/Adem.201400008

"Fabrication of CdS/CdTe-Based Thin Film Solar Cells Using an Electrochemical Technique"

Dharmadasa, I., P. Bingham, O. Echendu, H. Salim, T. Druffel, R. Dharmadasa, G. Sumanasekera, R. Dharmasena, M. Dergacheva, K. Mit, K. Urazov, L. Bowen, M. Walls and A. Abbas

Coatings 4(3): 380-415. DOI: 10.3390/coatings4030380


"Scalable synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties of copper oxide nanowire arrays and films"

Sunkara, S., V. K. Vendra, J. H. Kim, T. Druffel and M. K. Sunkara

Catalysis Today 199(0): 27-35. DOI: 10.1016/j.cattod.2012.03.014


"Spectroscopic Investigation of Photoinduced Charge-Transfer Processes in FTO/TiO2/N719 Photoanodes with and without Covalent Attachment through Silane-Based Linkers"

Pandit, B., T. Luitel, D. R. Cummins, A. K. Thapa, T. Druffel, F. Zamborini and J. Liu

J Phys Chem A 117(50): 13513-13523. DOI: 10.1021/jp407270j


"The effects of surface roughness on low haze ultrathin nanocomposite films"

Kanniah, V., E. A. Grulke and T. Druffel

Thin Solid Films 539: 170-180. DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2013.04.126


"Room temperature synthesis of a copper ink for the intense pulsed light sintering of conductive copper films"

Dharmadasa, R., M. Jha, D. A. Amos and T. Druffel

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5(24): 13227-13234. DOI: 10.1021/am404226e



"Photoanode Area Dependent Efficiency and Recombination Effects in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells"

Vendra, V. K., J. Absher, S. R. Ellis, D. A. Amos, T. Druffel and M. K. Sunkara

Journal of The Electrochemical Society 159(8): H728-H733. DOI: 10.1149/2.067208jes


"Elastic behaviour of a nanocomposite thin film undergoing significant strains"

Druffel, T., M. Lattis, M. Spencer, and O. Buazza

Nanotechnology, 2010. 21(10): p. 105708. doi 10.1088/0957-4484/21/10/105708

"Functionalizing titania nanoparticle surfaces in a fluidized bed plasma reactor" 

Deb, B., V. Kumar, T.L. Druffel, and M.K. Sunkara

Nanotechnology, 2009. 20(46): p. 465701. doi 10.1088/0957-4484/20/46/465701

"Polymer nanocomposite thin film mirror for the infrared region"

Druffel, T., N. Mandzy, M. Sunkara, and E. Grulke

Small, 2008. 4(4): p. 459-61. doi 10.1002/smll.200700680

"Nanoindentation-induced delamination of submicron polymeric coatings" 

Geng, K.B., F.Q. Yang, T. Druffel, and E.A. Grulke

Polymer, 2007. 48(3): p. 841-848. doi 10.1016/j.polymer.2006.07.075

"Mechanical comparison of a polymer nanocomposite to a ceramic thin-film anti-reflective filter" 

Druffel, T., K.B. Geng, and E. Grulke

Nanotechnology, 2006. 17(14): p. 3584-3590. doi 10.1088/0957-4484/17/14/038

"Breakage of TiO2 agglomerates in electrostatically stabilized aqueous dispersions" 

Mandzy, N., E. Grulke, and T. Druffel

Powder Technology, 2005. 160(2): p. 121-126. doi 10.1016/j.powtec.2005.08.020

"Anti-reflective optical coatings incorporating nanoparticles" 

Krogman, K.C., T. Druffel, and M.K. Sunkara

Nanotechnology, 2005. 16(7): p. S338-S343. doi 10.1088/0957-4484/16/7/005

"Nanoindentation behavior of ultrathin polymeric films" 

Geng, K.B., F.Q. Yang, T. Druffel, and E.A. Grulke

Polymer, 2005. 46(25): p. 11768-11772. doi 10.1016/j.polymer.2005.

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